This is an extra layer of security to confirm a user's identity. This requires not only a username and password, but also an additional piece of information that only the user knows or possesses. For example, you cannot withdraw money from a bank with your bank card (only the owner possesses) and PIN number (password). Typically, for Internet-related authentication this involves a username and password, and also a numeric code provided only to the user.
See also Authentication.
|Acceptable Use PolicyAUP||An AUP is an official statement on how an organization expects its employees to conduct messaging and Internet access on the organization’s email and Internet systems. The policy explains the organization’s position on how its users should conduct communication within and outside of the organization both for business and personal use.|
|Access control||The process of preventing unauthorized access to computers, programs, processes, or systems.|
Also known as wireless access point (WAP).
A networking device that allows a wireless-enabled device, such as a smartphone or tablet, to connect to a wired network. Typically, the AP connects to the wired network via a Router, but can be an integral component of the router itself.
|Active DirectoryAD||Microsoft directory service for organizations. It contains information about organizational units, users and computers.|
|ActiveX*||A Microsoft reusable component technology used in many VPN solutions to provide VPN client access in a road warrior's web browser.|
|Address Resolution ProtocolARP||A protocol that maps IP addresses to Network Interface CardNIC Media Access ControlMAC address.|
|Advanced Encryption StandardAES||A method of encryption selected by NIST as a replacement for Data Encryption StandardDES and Triple Data Encryption Algorithm3DES. AES supports key lengths of 128-bit, 192-bit and 256-bit. AES provides high security with fast performance across multiple platforms.|
|Advanced Firewall||See Software UTM.|
|Advanced Persistent ThreatAPT||A network attack in which an unauthorized person gains access to a network and stays there undetected for a long period of time. The intention of an APT attack is to steal data rather than to cause damage to the network or organization.|
or External Alias
In Smoothwall terminology, an alias is an additional public IP address that operates as an alternative identifier of the interface.
|Anonymous proxy blocking||The ability to prevent bypass of your Acceptable Use PolicyAUP.|
|Anti-Malware||A solution that prevents Malware from attacking your computer or network.|
|Anti-Spam||A Smoothwall add-on module that protects email servers and users by blocking Malware and Spam at the network perimeter.|
|Archive||The backup file, with a
|ARP cache||Used by Address Resolution ProtocolARP to maintain the correlation between IP addresses and MAC addresses.|
|Authentication||The process of verifying identity or authorization.|
|Authentication exceptions||Authentication exceptions are those websites that users must be able to access without authenticating first, such as software update site.|
|Authentication HeaderAH||Forms part of the Internet Protocol SecurityIPSec protocol suite. AH authenticates the source of the IP packets, known as datagrams, to maintain information integrity, but not secrecy.|
Bandwidth is the rate that data can be carried from one point to another.
Measured in bits per second (bps) or kilobits per second (Kbps).
|Bandwidth Management||A Smoothwall feature that allows you to shape the data traffic throughput of interfaces, IP addresses, and groups, and for applications.|
|BIN||A certificate format — in binary form, 8-bit compatible version of Privacy Enhanced MailPEM.|
|Blocklist||A collection of domains, URLs, and websites that are users are unable to browse to.|
|Bonding interfaces||Bonding interfaces are software Interface that combine Network Interface CardNIC to provide High AvailabilityHA. Note that this does not increase throughput.|
|Bridge interfaces||Bridge interfaces are software Interface that link Demilitarized ZoneDMZ. For example, linking the wireless interface to the wired network.|
|Bring your own deviceBYOD||The practice of allowing the employees of an organization to use their own computers, smartphones, or other devices for work purposes.|
|BTRFS||A Linux file system. This is the file system used when System Restore is enabled.|
|Buffer overflow||An error caused when a program tries to store too much data in a temporary storage area. This can be exploited by Hacker to execute malicious code.|
A software data storage facility used to store data from previous requests, so future requests are processed faster.
|Captive portal||Typically used in public networks, such as hotel lobbies, airports, coffee shops, captive portals are web pages that users must view and interact with before access to the network is granted. This interactions usually takes the form of user authentication.|
|Central management||The term used to describe a Cluster-like Smoothwall configuration, where one Smoothwall runs as the Parent node with one or more compatible Smoothwall's running as Child node being managed by the parent.|
|Certificate||A digital certificate is a file that uniquely identifies its owner. A certificate contains owner identity information and its owner's public key. Certificates are created by Certificate AuthorityCA.|
|Certificate AuthorityCA||A trusted network entity, responsible for issuing and managing X509 digital certificates.|
|Child node||A child node is a device on a network that is managed by another device named as the Parent node. In Central management terms, this is a Smoothwall appliance that is a Proxy for its own users. but receives configuration from the parent Smoothwall. In turn, logs and reporting data is sent to the parent node and managed there.|
|Chromebook||A laptop running Chrome OS as the operating system, designed primarily for use whilst connected to the Internet. Due to this and the low cost, Chromebook devices have emerged as the "go-to" device for schools.|
|Cipher||A cryptographic algorithm.|
|Ciphertext||Encrypted data which cannot be understood by unauthorized parties. Ciphertext is created from plain text using a cryptographic algorithm.|
|Client||Any computer or program connecting to, or requesting the services of, another computer or program.|
|Cluster||In networking terms, a cluster consists of connected servers and computers that work together for a common purpose, such that they are viewed as a single system. Smoothwall appliances configured as a cluster are referred to as a Central management.|
|Connect Filter||Connect Filter is a Smoothwall product that redirects web requests from client devices to Smoothwall's web filter. This allows you to enforce your organization's web content filtering policy on devices owned by your organization, wherever they are located. Supported devices are iOS, Mac OS, and Windows devices.|
|Content aware analysis||Identifying brand new web content in real-time, long before URL Blocklist come into play. This tool uses the context of the information on the page to decide if it should be blocked or not.|
|Cookies||A cookie is a piece of data that is sent from a website and stored in users' web browsers. These are used to record events occurring during browsing time — or example, items added to shopping carts, or user information added to fields. More importantly, it is used as part of user authentication to inform the web browser whether the user is logged in and which account they are using.|
|Cracker||A malicious Hacker.|
|Crossover cable||A network cable with TX and RX (transmit and receive) reversed at either end to provide a direct peer-to-peer network connection.|
|Cryptography||The study and use of methods designed to make information unintelligible.|
|Dashboard||A feature of the Smoothwall administration user interface that provides a summary of the status of the web filter and other functions.|
|Data Encryption StandardDES||A historical 64-bit encryption algorithm still widely used today. DES is scheduled for official obsolescence by the US government agency NIST.|
|Datastore||The datastore contains all Guardian, Anti-Spam, and web traffic log files, as well as the resulting file indexes used for reporting.|
|Deep Packet InspectionDPI||
Also called Complete Packet Inspection or Information Extraction (IX)
A form of computer network packet filtering that examines the data part (and possibly also the header) of a packet as it passes an inspection point. This examination searches for protocol non-compliance, viruses, spam, intrusions, or defined criteria to decide whether the packet may pass, if it needs to be routed to a different destination, or is merely for the purpose of collecting statistical information.
|Default gateway||The Gateway in a network that will be used to access another network if a gateway is not specified for use.|
|Demilitarized ZoneDMZ||A physical or logical Subnet that contains and isolates an organization’s external-facing services to a larger and untrusted network. For example, the Internet.|
|Denial of ServiceDoS attack||Occurs when a network host is flooded with large numbers of automatically generated data packets. The receiving host typically slows to a halt while it attempts to respond to each request.|
|Destination NATDNAT||Destination Network Address TranslationNAT (DNAT) is when the destination address of the network packet is changed, that is, changing where it is going to. DNAT is always done before routing. Port forward, Link load balancingLLB, and Transparent proxying are all forms of DNAT.|
|Distinguished Encoding RulesDER||A certificate format typically used by Microsoft Windows operating systems.|
|Domain||A distinct subset of the Internet, sharing a common name and suffix. Typically, each domain is under the control of an individual or organization.|
|Domain controller||A server on a Microsoft Windows network that is responsible for allowing host access to a Windows domain's resources.|
|Domain Name ServiceDNS||A name resolution service that translates a Domain to an IP address and vice versa|
|Dynamic Host Control ProtocolDHCP||A protocol for automatically assigning IP address to Host joining a network.|
|Dynamic IP address||A non-permanent IP address automatically assigned to a host by a Dynamic Host Control ProtocolDHCP server.|
|Dynamic token||A device which generates one-time passwords based on a challenge / response procedure.|
|Egress filtering||The practice of monitoring, and potentially restricting, the flow of information outbound from one network to another.|
|Encapsulating Security PayloadESP||A protocol within the Internet Protocol SecurityIPSec protocol suite that provides encryption services for Virtual Private NetworkVPN data.|
|Encryption||The transformation of Plaintext into a less readable form (see Ciphertext) through a mathematical process. A ciphertext may be read by anyone who has the key to decrypt it (undoes the encryption).|
|Exchange Server||A Microsoft messaging system including mail server, email client and groupware applications (such as shared calendars).|
|Exploit||A hardware or software vulnerability that can be "exploited" by a Hacker to gain access to a system or service.|
|Failback||The process of restoring operations to a primary machine or facility after they have been shifted to a secondary machine or facility during failover.|
|Failover||Failover is a backup operation for when functions of a system fail or terminate. Smoothwall failover systems are configured in a primary and secondary configuration, where the secondary Smoothwall appliance "takes over" should the primary appliance cease functioning for whatever reason.|
|Federated Login||Federated Login enables users of the Smoothwall authentication service to authenticate themselves using third party authentication systems, such as a Google application, using their Google user credentials.|
|File Transfer ProtocolFTP||A standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.|
|Filter||See Web filter.|
|FIPS||Federal Information Processing Standards. See National Institute of Standards and TechnologyNIST.|
|Firewall||A combination of hardware and software used to prevent access to private network resources.|
|Gateway||A network point that acts as an entrance to another network.|
|Guardian||A Smoothwall product providing Web filter facilities.|
|Hacker||A highly proficient computer programmer who seeks to gain unauthorized access to systems without malicious intent.|
|High AvailabilityHA||See Failover.|
|Host||A computer connected to a network.|
|Hostname||A name used to identify a network Host.|
|Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP||Hypertext is structured text that links (hyperlink) between bodies of text. HTTP is the protocol for these data links on the Internet, that is, the communication protocol.|
|HTTPS||A secure version of Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP using Secure Sockets LayerSSL.|
|Hub||A simple network device for connecting networks and network hosts.|
|Instant messenger proxyIM proxy||A Smoothwall feature that logs Instant MessengingIM traffic passing through it.|
|Instant MessengingIM||A type of online chat functions where real-time text messages are exchanged.|
|Interface||In Smoothwall terms, an interface refers to how the Smoothwall appliance connects to client devices. This can either be via physical Network Interface CardNIC, or via a software interface|
|Internet Control Message ProtocolICMP||One of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. It is chiefly used by networked computers' operating systems to send error messages indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached.|
|Intrusion Detection SystemIDS||The Intrusion Detection System performs real-time packet analysis on all network traffic in order to detect malicious network activity|
|Integrated Services for Digital
|ISDN is the communication protocol for transmitting network services such as data, voice, and video, over the public telephone network (PSTN).|
|Internet Engineering Task Force®IETF||A branch of the Internet Society (ISOC) tasked with making "the Internet work better by producing high quality, relevant technical documents that influence the way people design, use, and manage the Internet." — https://www.ietf.org/.|
|Internet ProtocolIP||A set of rules governing the format of data sent over the Internet or other network.|
|Intrusion Prevention SystemIPS||The Intrusion Prevention System performs real-time packet analysis on all network traffic in order to prevent malicious network activity|
|IP address||A 32-bit number that identifies each sender and receiver of network data.|
|IP tables||The Linux packet filtering tool used by Smoothwallto provide firewall capabilities.|
|Internet Protocol SecurityIPSec||An internationally recognized VPN protocol suite developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (Internet Engineering Task Force® IETF).|
|IPSec passthrough||A "helper" application on Network Address TranslationNAT devices that allows Internet Protocol SecurityIPSec Virtual Private NetworkVPN traffic to pass through.|
|Internet Service ProviderISP||The company that provides and bills private homes and organizations for their Internet connection. Note this may not always be the same company that owns and operates the public network.|
|ISO image fileISO||
ISO images are a common format for burning data onto CDs and DVDs.
Smoothwall uses this format for providing installation media for its products.
|Kerberos||A secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. In Smoothwall terms, this protocol is only used with Microsoft's Active Directory.|
|Kerberos keytabs||A keytab is a file containing Kerberos-encrypted keys.|
|Kernel||The core part of an operating system that provides services to all other parts the operating system.|
|Key||A string of bits used with an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data. Given an algorithm, the key determines the mapping of Plaintext to Ciphertext.|
|Key space||The name given to the range of possible values for a Key. The key space is the number of bits needed to count every distinct key. The longer the key length (in bits), the greater the key space.|
|Layer 2 ForwardingL2F||
Layer 2 refers to the data link layer of the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) of computing. VPNs provide the link between networks.
L2F is a Virtual Private NetworkVPN system, developed by Cisco Systems.
|Layer 2 Transport ProtocolL2TP||
Layer 2 refers to the data link layer of the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) of computing. VPNs provide the link between networks.
|Layer 7 application control||
Layer 7 refers to the application layer of the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) of computing.
Bandwidth management uses Layer 7 application control to manage available bandwidth for specified applications.
|Link load balancingLLB||LLB describes the process of sharing traffic originating from IP address, across multiple Interface to increase available bandwidth, maximize throughput, and add redundancy.|
|Link-load-balancer-link-balancer link||In telecommunications, a link is a physical (and, in some usages, a logical) connection between two points.|
|Local Area NetworkLAN||A network between hosts in a similar, localized geography.|
Or private circuits
A bespoke high-speed, high-capacity, site-to-site network that is installed, leased and managed by a telephone company.
|Limit to quota||A Guardian policy action. Users are allowed through to the requested websites but only for a limited period of time.|
A method to stop an unauthorized attempt to gain access to a computer.
For example, a three try limit when entering a password. After three attempts, the system locks out the user.
|Mail eXchangeMX record||An entry in a domain name database that specifies an email server to handle a domain name's email.|
|Malware||Software which is specifically designed to disrupt or damage a computer or network.|
|Management Information BaseMIB||A database used to manage elements of a network.|
|Media Access ControlMAC address||The unique hardware identifier of a Network Interface CardNIC.|
|Message censor||Message censor is a feature of the Instant messenger proxyIM proxy that monitors instant messages to either accept, modify, block, or log content.|
|Man-in-the-middleMITM||In Smoothwall terms, MITM refers to situations where the Smoothwall appliance is between the client device and the Internet, for example, for the purposes of HTTPS decrypt and inspect.|
|Multi-Tenant Managed SystemsMulti-Tenant||
Multi-Tenant Managed Systems provides a means of logically partitioning a Smoothwall network into multiple virtual instances. Each instance, referred to as a tenant, is managed individually.
For example, within a Smoothwall school district, each school would be managed as an individual tenant.
|Nagios||Nagios is a monitoring tool, used to ensure mission-critical systems function correctly.|
Most network devices, such as computers, are assigned a Private IP address. For those devices to connect to the Internet, their router or firewall is assigned a Public IP address. But if multiple devices are using the same router, surely all web requests are sent using the same public IP address? This is where Network Address Translation (NAT) comes into play.
When a private IP address makes a request to access data on the Internet, the request is sent to their router. The router recognizes that the request is for the Internet so sends the request out using its own public IP address. The resultant data is sent back to the router using the public IP address. The router recognizes the data is not for itself so translates the public IP address into the private IP address of the requesting device.
|Network Guardian||See Software SWG.|
|Network Interface CardNIC||A Network Interface Card (NIC) provides the network device with a dedicated, permanent connection to the network.|
|National Institute of
Standards and TechnologyNIST
|NIST produces security and cryptography related standards and publishes them as FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard) documents.|
|Network maskNetmask||A network mask, or netmask, hides the network part of an IP address so that only the host part of the address remains.|
|Network Time ProtocolNTP||A protocol for synchronizing a computer's system clock by querying NTP Servers.|
|Network zone||See Demilitarized ZoneDMZ|
|Node||A node is an individual part of a network — a printer, a computer, a server, a router, and so on.|
Also known as manual proxying.
This is where the client device, in this instance, the web browser, knows that a Proxy is being used, and so can act accordingly. A great advantage of non-transparent proxying is that malware may not be able to function correctly as they will not have the proxy settings.
|NT LAN ManagerNTLM||A suite of Microsoft security protocols that provide authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.|
|Parent node||In networking terms, a parent node is a Node in a network that has other nodes branching off it. In Central management, this is the Smoothwall that other Smoothwall appliances connect to to download their configuration from, and upload their log data to.|
|Peer-2-peer file sharingP2P||Allows users to access media files such as books and movies, using a P2P software program. These search for other computers connected to a P2P network to locate the desired content.|
|A widely used Microsoft tunneling standard deemed to be relatively insecure.|
|Perfect Forward SecrecyPFS||A key-establishment protocol, used to secure previous VPN communications, should a key currently in use be compromised.|
|Phase 1||Phase 1 of a 2 phase Virtual Private NetworkVPN tunnel establishment process. Phase 1 negotiates the security parameter agreement.|
|Phase 2||Phase 2 of 2 phase Virtual Private NetworkVPN tunnel establishment process. Phase 2 uses the agreed parameters from Phase 1 to bring the tunnel up.|
|Ping||A program used to verify that a specific IP address can be seen from another.|
|Plaintext||Data that has not been encrypted, or Ciphertext that has been decrypted.|
|Point-to-Point ProtocolPPP||Used to communicate between two computers via a serial interface such as a telephone line.|
|Point-to-Point Protocol over
|PPPoE combines the Point-to-Point ProtocolPPP protocol with the network protocol (this is the Ethernet bit), therefore expanding it to support multiple users in a Local Area NetworkLAN.|
|Policy||Contains content filters and, optionally time settings and authentication requirements, to determine how Smoothwall handles web content and downloads to best protect your users and your organization.|
|Port||A service connection point on a computer system numerically identified between 0 and 65536. Port 80 is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP port.|
|Port forward||A Firewall rule that routes traffic from a receiving interface and port combination to another interface and port combination. Port forwarding (sometimes referred to as tunneling) is the act of forwarding a network Port from one network Node to another. This technique can allow an external user to reach a port on a Private IP address (inside a Local Area NetworkLAN) from the outside via a Network Address TranslationNAT-enabled router.|
|Post Office Protocol 3POP3||This is a protocol used by email clients to download email from a remote server. It should be noted that emails are deleted from the email server as soon as the user has downloaded them.|
|Pre-Shared KeyPSK||An authentication mechanism that uses a password exchange and matching process to determine authenticity.|
|Privacy Enhanced MailPEM||A popular Certificate format.|
|Private circuits||See Leased Lines .|
|Private IP address||Private IP address identify devices on a private network. Private IP addresses can be shared by any number of private networks.|
|Private key||A secret encryption key known only by its owner. Only the corresponding public key can decrypt messages encrypted using the private key.|
|Protocol||A formal specification of a means of computer communication.|
|Proxy||An intermediary server that mediates access to a service.|
|Public IP address||Public IP address identify devices on a public network such as the Internet. As such, each public IP address is unique.|
|Public Key||A publicly available encryption Key that can decrypt messages encrypted by its owner's private key. A public key can be used to send a private message to the public key owner.|
Standards # 12PKCS#12
|A portable container file format for transporting Certificate and private Key.|
|Public Key InfrastructurePKI||A framework that provides for trusted third party vetting of, and vouching for, user identities; and binding of public Key to users. The public keys are typically in Certificate.|
|PuTTY||A free Windows Secure SHell SSH client.|
|Quality of ServiceQoS||In relation to leased lines, QOS is a contractual guarantee of uptime and Bandwidth.|
|Remote Authentication Dial-In User ServiceRADIUS||RADIUS is a user authentication and accounting protocol.|
|Real-time content filtering||The practice of filtering access to websites by analyzing page content and the context of the web request. This analysis is carried out in real-time.|
|Redundant Array of
Originally known as Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.
Data storage technology that combines multiple physical disks into a single point of access. This is typically used for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.
|Release||A software update. In Smoothwall terms, this is the castle release containing new features and product improvements. See also Update.|
|Remote Access ServerRAS||A server which can be attached to a Local Area NetworkLAN to allow dial-up connectivity from other LANs or individual users. RAS has been largely superseded by Virtual Private NetworkVPN.|
|Restore point||A representation of a system at a point in time. You can "roll back" to this representation at any time in case of problems, effectively resetting the system.|
In Smoothwall terms, you use Reverse proxy when you want to make content that sits behind the Smoothwall public, for example, a company website residing on a web server. Rather than exposing the web server to the Internet, you can route web requests for the web server, through the Smoothwall by nominating an internal Interface as the route for that communication.
The advantage of doing this is that you can host multiple services behind a single IP address.
|Road warrior||An individual remote network user, typically a traveling worker "on the road" requiring access to a organization’s network via a laptop. Usually has a Dynamic IP address.|
|Route||In networking terms, a path from one network point to another.|
|Router||A network device that performs traffic redirection for data packets.|
|Routing Information ProtocolRIP||A routing protocol which helps Router dynamically adapt to changes in network connections by communicating information about which networks each router can reach and how far away those networks are.|
|Routing table||A table used to provide directions to other networks and hosts.|
|Rules||In firewall terminology, rules are used to determine what traffic is allowed to move from one network endpoint to another|
|Safeguarding||A Smoothwall feature that can help organizations' e-safety legislative responsibilities regarding Internet use.|
|Search term filtering||The practice of filtering and blocking specific search terms.|
|SSH File Transfer ProtocolSFTP||A secure version of File Transfer ProtocolFTP that uses Secure SHell SSH.|
|Secure Global Proxy||A Smoothwall feature that allows direct connection to the Guardian web filter for remote devices, through external interfaces.|
|Secure SHell SSH||A command line interface used to securely access a remote computer.|
|Secure Sockets LayerSSL||A cryptographic protocol which provides secure communications on the Internet.|
|Secure Web GatewaySWG||A Smoothwall product that analyzes and categorizes web content in Real-time content filtering as well as utilizing "on-box" Blocklist to provide a powerful web filter, protecting you from inappropriate or illegal content.|
|Security policy||A security policy is a collection of procedures, standards and guidelines that state in writing how an organization plans to protect its physical and information technology (IT) assets. It should include password, account and logging policies, administrator and user rights and define what behavior is and is not permitted, by whom and under what circumstances.|
|Server||Typically, a computer that provides shared resources to network users.|
|Session Initiation Protocol SIP||A protocol for initiating, modifying, and terminating an interactive user session that involves multimedia elements such as video, voice, instant messaging, online games, and virtual reality. Commonly used in Voice over IPVoIP applications.|
|Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP||A protocol for sending email messages from one server to another, typically, from the sender's email server to the recipient’s email server.|
|Simple Network Management
A protocol, implemented on the application layer of the network (layer 7), that enables data gathering from different systems.
Enabling this allows the Smoothwall to act as an SNMP agent that gathers and stores all relevant information ready for retrieval by a third party SNMP management tool.
|Single Sign-On SSO||The ability to log-in to multiple computers or servers in a single action by entering a single password. See OpenAuthOAuth.|
|Site-to-site||A network connection between two LANs, typically between two business sites. Usually uses a Static IP address.|
|Server Name IndicationSNI||SNI indicates which hostname is being requested by the user's browser at the beginning of the request. This tells the web server which Certificate to send back. Browsers and servers that support SNI are able to connect multiple certificates for multiple domains to one IP address and gateway.|
|Snapshot||See Restore point.|
|Social media controls||Flexible tools to allow read-only access, block social gaming or remove inappropriate content from social media sites.|
|Soft block||A Guardian policy action. The block page is displayed if a user requests access to the website, but they can chose whether to stop at this point, or click through.|
|Software SWG||The Smoothwall Secure Web GatewaySWG product, but only where the software has been purchased. This runs on the customer's own hardware.|
|Software UTM||The Smoothwall Unified Threat ManagementUTM product, but only where the software has been purchased. This runs on the customer's own hardware.|
|Source NATSNAT||Source Network Address TranslationNAT-ing "hides" the source IP address in data packets.|
|Spam||Junk email, usually unsolicited.|
|Spoofing||In Smoothwall terms, spoofing allows upstream proxies to see the originating source IP address of requests, rather than the Smoothwall's IP address.|
|SQL injection||A type of exploit whereby hackers are able to execute SQL statements via an Internet browser.|
|Squid||A high performance Proxy caching server for web clients.|
|SSL VPN||A Virtual Private NetworkVPN accessed via HTTPS from any browser (theoretically). VPNs require minimal client configuration.|
|Static IP address||An IP address permanently assigned to that network device.|
|Strong encryption||A term given to describe a cryptographic system that uses a Key so long that, in practice, it becomes impossible to break the system within a meaningful time frame.|
|Subnet||An identifiably separate part of an organization’s network.|
|Switch||An intelligent cable junction device that links networks and network hosts together.|
|Swurl||Swurl provides allowing and blocking services to Internet content. URLs to the content can be managed via the user interface.|
|Syslog||A server used to remotely record logging information.|
Also known as command line interface.
An alternative to the user interface, the terminal is another means of interacting with software, by means of a text interface.
A command used to reveal the routing path to Internet hosts, shown as a series of hops from one system to another. A greater number of hops indicates a longer (and therefore slower) connection.
Depending on the terminal used, this may be a one-word or two-word command.
|A standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation via which application programs can exchange data. TCP works with Internet ProtocolIP, together they are the basic rules defining the Internet.|
|Transparent proxying||With this proxy type, clients do no know they are being proxied, therefore special, extra (to Smoothwall) configuration can be skipped. All traffic destined for the Internet is redirected through the proxy. For Smoothwall configurations, the redirect is to Guardian.|
|Triple Data Encryption Algorithm3DES||This is a triple strength version of the Data Encryption StandardDES cryptographic standard, typically using a 168-bit key.|
Also known as Virtual Private NetworkVPN.
The transmission of data intended for use only within a private network through a public network in such a way that the routing nodes in the public network are unaware that the transmission is part of a private network.
|Unified Threat ManagementUTM||A Smoothwall product that combines the web filtering functionality of the Secure Web GatewaySWG product with Firewall functionality to prevent intrusion, and protect your network.|
|Universal Power SupplyUPS||A physical device connected to mission-critical systems that provide emergency power should the mains power supply fail.|
|Update||A smaller software release, containing bug fixes and enhancements to potential security threats. See Release.|
|Upstream proxy||In some network configurations, it may not be the Smoothwall that makes the final connection to the Internet. Clients still proxy through the Smoothwall, but the Smoothwall must forward all or some requests to another web proxy server which makes the final connection to the Internet, referred to as the upstream proxy. For example, in networks where the local authority provides the internet connections for all its schools; each school has their own Smoothwall appliance but must connect to the local authority's web proxy to access the Internet.|
|User Datagram ProtocolUDP||Like Transmission Control ProtocolTCP, UDP is a standard for network conversations. However, there is no error checking, and Route between hosts are not set down.|
|User portal||A cut-down version of the Smoothwall administration user interface, where only specific operations are available.|
|UsernameUser ID||A unique name by which each user is known to the network.|
|Virtual Local Area NetworkVLAN||A smaller subset of the Local Area NetworkLAN, which is isolated from other VLANs on the network, effectively creating a "LAN within a LAN". This allows network administrators to logically divide the network into manageable groups without the need for extra equipment. Devices in one VLAN cannot see devices, or their traffic, in another VLAN. For example, schools may create a VLAN for staff and another for students; hotels can create separate VLANs for each guest and conference room.|
|Virtual Private NetworkVPN||A virtual link between two networks, connecting between the two using one or more other networks. A VPN allows clients on the two networks to communicate as if the networks were directly connected.|
|Voice over IPVoIP||VoIP is the methodology and technology for delivering voice communications over Internet ProtocolIP networks, typically the Internet. This has been expanded to include multimedia sessions as well.|
|VPN Gateway||An endpoint used to establish, manage and control Virtual Private NetworkVPN connections.|
|Web Cache Communication
WCCP is a Cisco-developed content-routing protocol that provides a mechanism to redirect traffic flows in real-time.
When enabled in the Smoothwall, it broadcasts its available to WCCP-compatible routers, advising that web traffic can be redirected to it.
|Web filter||A filter is a collection of categories containing URLs, domains, phrases, lists of file types and replacement rules. Filters are used in policies to determine if a user should be allowed access to requested information or files using their web browser. Guardian is Smoothwall's web filter.|
|Web proxy||A Proxy that mediates access to the Internet.|
|Whitelist||A collection of domains, URLs, and websites that are users are able to browse straight to without authentication or interception.|
|Whois||A command used to display ownership information for an IP address or domain name.|
|Wireless Access PointWAP||See Access pointAP.|
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